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Python NMS 非极大值抑制 Python 非极大值抑制(NMS)的四种实现详解

三年一梦   2021-11-17 我要评论
想了解Python 非极大值抑制(NMS)的四种实现详解的相关内容吗三年一梦在本文为您仔细讲解Python NMS 非极大值抑制的相关知识和一些Code实例欢迎阅读和指正我们先划重点:Python,非极大值抑制,Python,NMS下面大家一起来学习吧。

方法1:纯python语言实现:简介方便、速度慢

方法2:直接利用Cython模块编译

方法3:先将全部变量定义为静态类型再利用Cython模块编译

方法4:在方法3的基础上再加入cuda加速模块 再利用Cython模块编译即利用gpu加速

一.  几点说明

1. 简单说明Cython:

Cython是一个快速生成Python扩展模块的工具从语法层面上来讲是Python语法和C语言语法的混血当Python性能遇到瓶颈时Cython直接将C的原生速度植入Python程序这样使Python程序无需使用C重写能快速整合原有的Python程序这样使得开发效率和执行效率都有很大的提高而这些中间的部分都是Cython帮我们做了。

 2. 简单介绍NMS:

Faster-RCNN中有两处使用NMS第一处是训练+预测的时候利用ProposalCreator来生成proposal的时候因为只需要一部分proposal所以利用NMS进行筛选。第二处使用是预测的时候当得到300个分类与坐标偏移结果的时候需要对每个类别逐一进行非极大值抑制。也许有人问为什么对于每个类别不直接取置信度最高的那一个?因为一张图中某个类别可能不止一个例如一张图中有多个人直接取最高置信度的只能预测其中的一个人而通过NMS理想情况下可以使得每个人(每类中的每个个体)都会有且仅有一个bbox框。

二.  四种方法实现

1. 纯python实现:nms_py.py

#!/usr/bin/env python3
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Created on Mon May  7 21:45:37 2018

@author: lps
"""
import numpy as np


boxes=np.array([[100,100,210,210,0.72],
        [250,250,420,420,0.8],
        [220,220,320,330,0.92],
        [100,100,210,210,0.72],
        [230,240,325,330,0.81],
        [220,230,315,340,0.9]]) 


def py_cpu_nms(dets, thresh):
    # dets:(m,5)  thresh:scaler
    
    x1 = dets[:,0]
    y1 = dets[:,1]
    x2 = dets[:,2]
    y2 = dets[:,3]
    
    areas = (y2-y1+1) * (x2-x1+1)
    scores = dets[:,4]
    keep = []
    
    index = scores.argsort()[::-1]
    
    while index.size >0:

        i = index[0]       # every time the first is the biggst, and add it directly
        keep.append(i)
        
        x11 = np.maximum(x1[i], x1[index[1:]])    # calculate the points of overlap 
        y11 = np.maximum(y1[i], y1[index[1:]])
        x22 = np.minimum(x2[i], x2[index[1:]])
        y22 = np.minimum(y2[i], y2[index[1:]])
        
        w = np.maximum(0, x22-x11+1)    # the weights of overlap
        h = np.maximum(0, y22-y11+1)    # the height of overlap
       
        overlaps = w*h
        
        ious = overlaps / (areas[i]+areas[index[1:]] - overlaps)
        
        idx = np.where(ious<=thresh)[0]
        
        index = index[idx+1]   # because index start from 1
        
    return keep
        

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
def plot_bbox(dets, c='k'):
    
    x1 = dets[:,0]
    y1 = dets[:,1]
    x2 = dets[:,2]
    y2 = dets[:,3]
    
    
    plt.plot([x1,x2], [y1,y1], c)
    plt.plot([x1,x1], [y1,y2], c)
    plt.plot([x1,x2], [y2,y2], c)
    plt.plot([x2,x2], [y1,y2], c)
    plt.title("after nms")

plot_bbox(boxes,'k')   # before nms

keep = py_cpu_nms(boxes, thresh=0.7)
plot_bbox(boxes[keep], 'r')# after nms

结果大致这样:

新建nms文件夹将nms_py.py 和__init__.py(空)文件放在其内成为包可以调用。然后在nms文件夹外新建测试运行时间脚本 test_num.py:

import numpy as np
import time
from nms.nums_py import py_cpu_nms  # for cpu
#from nms.gpu_nms import gpu_nms   # for gpu 


np.random.seed( 1 )   # keep fixed
num_rois = 6000
minxy = np.random.randint(50,145,size=(num_rois ,2))
maxxy = np.random.randint(150,200,size=(num_rois ,2))
score = 0.8*np.random.random_sample((num_rois ,1))+0.2

boxes_new = np.concatenate((minxy,maxxy,score), axis=1).astype(np.float32)

def nms_test_time(boxes_new):

    thresh = [0.7,0.8,0.9]
    T = 50
    for i in range(len(thresh)):
        since = time.time()
        for t in range(T):

            keep = py_cpu_nms(boxes_new, thresh=thresh[i])     # for cpu
#            keep = gpu_nms(boxes_new, thresh=thresh[i])       # for gpu
        print("thresh={:.1f}, time wastes:{:.4f}".format(thresh[i], (time.time()-since)/T))
    
    return keep


if __name__ =="__main__":
    nms_test_time(boxes_new)

测试数据为6000个初始的rois并设置nms阈值为0.7~0.9。阈值越大越慢因为满足小于阈值的roi越多需要循环的次数也越多。对每个阈值循环执行NMS 50次求平均:

直接运行得到运行时间:

thresh=0.7, time wastes:0.0287
thresh=0.8, time wastes:0.1057
thresh=0.9, time wastes:0.4204

2.直接利用Cython模块编译:nms_py1.pyx

 首先复制一份nms_py.py并重命名为nms_py1.pyxpyx即为Cython文件。然后在nms文件夹下新建setup1.py:

from distutils.core import setup
from Cython.Build import cythonize

setup(
      name = 'nms_module',
      ext_modules = cythonize('nums_py1.pyx'),
      )

下面开始生成动态链接库:在终端执行:

python3 setup1.py build

然后在当前目录会生成nums_py1.c,即C源代码然后在nms/build/lib.linux-x86_64-3.5下会生成nums_py1.cpython-35m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so这一动态链接库将其复制一份至nms文件夹下则现在可以在测试脚本中进行测试了:只需将测试脚本中的 from nms.nums_py import py_cpu_nms  改为 from nms.nums1_py import py_cpu_nms 即可。因为pyx是不可以直接执行的只有build完成后才可以。

运行测试脚本得到以下结果:

thresh=0.7, time wastes:0.0272
thresh=0.8, time wastes:0.1038
thresh=0.9, time wastes:0.4184

发现与纯python速度相比仅有微小提升下面再利用第3种方法。

3. 更改变量定义后再利用Cython模块编译:nms_py2.pyx

import numpy as np
cimport numpy as np
#
#boxes=np.array([[100,100,210,210,0.72],
#        [250,250,420,420,0.8],
#        [220,220,320,330,0.92],
#        [100,100,210,210,0.72],
#        [230,240,325,330,0.81],
#        [220,230,315,340,0.9]]) 
#


cdef inline np.float32_t max(np.float32_t a, np.float32_t b):
    return a if a >= b else b

cdef inline np.float32_t min(np.float32_t a, np.float32_t b):
    return a if a <= b else b

def py_cpu_nms(np.ndarray[np.float32_t,ndim=2] dets, np.float thresh):
    # dets:(m,5)  thresh:scaler
    
    cdef np.ndarray[np.float32_t, ndim=1] x1 = dets[:,0]
    cdef np.ndarray[np.float32_t, ndim=1] y1 = dets[:,1]
    cdef np.ndarray[np.float32_t, ndim=1] x2 = dets[:,2]
    cdef np.ndarray[np.float32_t, ndim=1] y2 = dets[:,3]
    cdef np.ndarray[np.float32_t, ndim=1] scores = dets[:, 4]
    
    cdef np.ndarray[np.float32_t, ndim=1] areas = (y2-y1+1) * (x2-x1+1)
    cdef np.ndarray[np.int_t, ndim=1]  index = scores.argsort()[::-1]    # can be rewriten
    keep = []
    
    cdef int ndets = dets.shape[0]
    cdef np.ndarray[np.int_t, ndim=1] suppressed = np.zeros(ndets, dtype=np.int)
    
    cdef int _i, _j
    
    cdef int i, j
    
    cdef np.float32_t ix1, iy1, ix2, iy2, iarea
    cdef np.float32_t w, h
    cdef np.float32_t overlap, ious
    
    j=0
    
    for _i in range(ndets):
        i = index[_i]
        
        if suppressed[i] == 1:
            continue
        keep.append(i)
        
        ix1 = x1[i]
        iy1 = y1[i]
        ix2 = x2[i]
        iy2 = y2[i]
        
        iarea = areas[i]
        
        for _j in range(_i+1, ndets):
            j = index[_j]
            if suppressed[j] == 1:
                continue
            xx1 = max(ix1, x1[j])
            yy1 = max(iy1, y1[j])
            xx2 = min(ix2, x2[j])
            yy2 = min(iy2, y2[j])
    
            w = max(0.0, xx2-xx1+1)
            h = max(0.0, yy2-yy1+1)
            
            overlap = w*h 
            ious = overlap / (iarea + areas[j] - overlap)
            if ious>thresh:
                suppressed[j] = 1
    
    return keep

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
def plot_bbox(dets, c='k'):
    
    x1 = dets[:,0]
    y1 = dets[:,1]
    x2 = dets[:,2]
    y2 = dets[:,3]
    
    plt.plot([x1,x2], [y1,y1], c)
    plt.plot([x1,x1], [y1,y2], c)
    plt.plot([x1,x2], [y2,y2], c)
    plt.plot([x2,x2], [y1,y2], c)

其中变量静态类型可以极大的提高效率原因是参与计算的主要是变量主要的变化是将变量利用cdef定义。

然后同上建立setup2.py:

from distutils.core import setup
from Cython.Build import cythonize

setup(
      name = 'nms_module',
      ext_modules = cythonize('nums_py2.pyx'),
      )

build后将动态库.so拷贝到nms文件夹下然后同上修改测试脚本执行测试脚本:

thresh=0.7, time wastes:0.0019
thresh=0.8, time wastes:0.0028
thresh=0.9, time wastes:0.0036

发现速度相较于纯python分别提升了15倍、38倍、118倍!

4. 在方法3的基础上利用GPU:gpu_nms.pyx

import numpy as np
cimport numpy as np

assert sizeof(int) == sizeof(np.int32_t)

cdef extern from "gpu_nms.hpp":
    void _nms(np.int32_t*, int*, np.float32_t*, int, int, float, int)

def gpu_nms(np.ndarray[np.float32_t, ndim=2] dets, np.float thresh,
            np.int32_t device_id=0):
    cdef int boxes_num = dets.shape[0]
    cdef int boxes_dim = dets.shape[1]
    cdef int num_out
    cdef np.ndarray[np.int32_t, ndim=1] \
        keep = np.zeros(boxes_num, dtype=np.int32)
    cdef np.ndarray[np.float32_t, ndim=1] \
        scores = dets[:, 4]
    cdef np.ndarray[np.int_t, ndim=1] \
        order = scores.argsort()[::-1]
    cdef np.ndarray[np.float32_t, ndim=2] \
        sorted_dets = dets[order, :]
    _nms(&keep[0], &num_out, &sorted_dets[0, 0], boxes_num, boxes_dim, thresh, device_id)
    keep = keep[:num_out]
    return list(order[keep])

再建立文件nms_gpu.hpp:

void _nms(int* keep_out, int* num_out, const float* boxes_host, int boxes_num,
          int boxes_dim, float nms_overlap_thresh, int device_id);

和nms_kernel.cu文件:

#include "gpu_nms.hpp"
#include <vector>
#include <iostream>

#define CUDA_CHECK(condition) \
  /* Code block avoids redefinition of cudaError_t error */ \
  do { \
    cudaError_t error = condition; \
    if (error != cudaSuccess) { \
      std::cout << cudaGetErrorString(error) << std::endl; \
    } \
  } while (0)

#define DIVUP(m,n) ((m) / (n) + ((m) % (n) > 0))
int const threadsPerBlock = sizeof(unsigned long long) * 8;

__device__ inline float devIoU(float const * const a, float const * const b) {
  float left = max(a[0], b[0]), right = min(a[2], b[2]);
  float top = max(a[1], b[1]), bottom = min(a[3], b[3]);
  float width = max(right - left + 1, 0.f), height = max(bottom - top + 1, 0.f);
  float interS = width * height;
  float Sa = (a[2] - a[0] + 1) * (a[3] - a[1] + 1);
  float Sb = (b[2] - b[0] + 1) * (b[3] - b[1] + 1);
  return interS / (Sa + Sb - interS);
}

__global__ void nms_kernel(const int n_boxes, const float nms_overlap_thresh,
                           const float *dev_boxes, unsigned long long *dev_mask) {
  const int row_start = blockIdx.y;
  const int col_start = blockIdx.x;

  // if (row_start > col_start) return;

  const int row_size =
        min(n_boxes - row_start * threadsPerBlock, threadsPerBlock);
  const int col_size =
        min(n_boxes - col_start * threadsPerBlock, threadsPerBlock);

  __shared__ float block_boxes[threadsPerBlock * 5];
  if (threadIdx.x < col_size) {
    block_boxes[threadIdx.x * 5 + 0] =
        dev_boxes[(threadsPerBlock * col_start + threadIdx.x) * 5 + 0];
    block_boxes[threadIdx.x * 5 + 1] =
        dev_boxes[(threadsPerBlock * col_start + threadIdx.x) * 5 + 1];
    block_boxes[threadIdx.x * 5 + 2] =
        dev_boxes[(threadsPerBlock * col_start + threadIdx.x) * 5 + 2];
    block_boxes[threadIdx.x * 5 + 3] =
        dev_boxes[(threadsPerBlock * col_start + threadIdx.x) * 5 + 3];
    block_boxes[threadIdx.x * 5 + 4] =
        dev_boxes[(threadsPerBlock * col_start + threadIdx.x) * 5 + 4];
  }
  __syncthreads();

  if (threadIdx.x < row_size) {
    const int cur_box_idx = threadsPerBlock * row_start + threadIdx.x;
    const float *cur_box = dev_boxes + cur_box_idx * 5;
    int i = 0;
    unsigned long long t = 0;
    int start = 0;
    if (row_start == col_start) {
      start = threadIdx.x + 1;
    }
    for (i = start; i < col_size; i++) {
      if (devIoU(cur_box, block_boxes + i * 5) > nms_overlap_thresh) {
        t |= 1ULL << i;
      }
    }
    const int col_blocks = DIVUP(n_boxes, threadsPerBlock);
    dev_mask[cur_box_idx * col_blocks + col_start] = t;
  }
}

void _set_device(int device_id) {
  int current_device;
  CUDA_CHECK(cudaGetDevice(&current_device));
  if (current_device == device_id) {
    return;
  }
  // The call to cudaSetDevice must come before any calls to Get, which
  // may perform initialization using the GPU.
  CUDA_CHECK(cudaSetDevice(device_id));
}

void _nms(int* keep_out, int* num_out, const float* boxes_host, int boxes_num,
          int boxes_dim, float nms_overlap_thresh, int device_id) {
  _set_device(device_id);

  float* boxes_dev = NULL;
  unsigned long long* mask_dev = NULL;

  const int col_blocks = DIVUP(boxes_num, threadsPerBlock);

  CUDA_CHECK(cudaMalloc(&boxes_dev,
                        boxes_num * boxes_dim * sizeof(float)));
  CUDA_CHECK(cudaMemcpy(boxes_dev,
                        boxes_host,
                        boxes_num * boxes_dim * sizeof(float),
                        cudaMemcpyHostToDevice));

  CUDA_CHECK(cudaMalloc(&mask_dev,
                        boxes_num * col_blocks * sizeof(unsigned long long)));

  dim3 blocks(DIVUP(boxes_num, threadsPerBlock),
              DIVUP(boxes_num, threadsPerBlock));
  dim3 threads(threadsPerBlock);
  nms_kernel<<<blocks, threads>>>(boxes_num,
                                  nms_overlap_thresh,
                                  boxes_dev,
                                  mask_dev);

  std::vector<unsigned long long> mask_host(boxes_num * col_blocks);
  CUDA_CHECK(cudaMemcpy(&mask_host[0],
                        mask_dev,
                        sizeof(unsigned long long) * boxes_num * col_blocks,
                        cudaMemcpyDeviceToHost));

  std::vector<unsigned long long> remv(col_blocks);
  memset(&remv[0], 0, sizeof(unsigned long long) * col_blocks);

  int num_to_keep = 0;
  for (int i = 0; i < boxes_num; i++) {
    int nblock = i / threadsPerBlock;
    int inblock = i % threadsPerBlock;

    if (!(remv[nblock] & (1ULL << inblock))) {
      keep_out[num_to_keep++] = i;
      unsigned long long *p = &mask_host[0] + i * col_blocks;
      for (int j = nblock; j < col_blocks; j++) {
        remv[j] |= p[j];
      }
    }
  }
  *num_out = num_to_keep;

  CUDA_CHECK(cudaFree(boxes_dev));
  CUDA_CHECK(cudaFree(mask_dev));
}

然后在nms文件夹外建立setup3.py:

from distutils.core import setup
from Cython.Build import cythonize
from distutils.extension import Extension
from Cython.Distutils import build_ext
import subprocess
import numpy as np
import os
from os.path import join as pjoin


def find_in_path(name, path):
    "Find a file in a search path"
    # Adapted fom
    # http://code.activestate.com/recipes/52224-find-a-file-given-a-search-path/
    for dir in path.split(os.pathsep):
        binpath = pjoin(dir, name)
        if os.path.exists(binpath):
            return os.path.abspath(binpath)
    return None

def locate_cuda():
    """Locate the CUDA environment on the system
    Returns a dict with keys 'home', 'nvcc', 'include', and 'lib64'
    and values giving the absolute path to each directory.
    Starts by looking for the CUDAHOME env variable. If not found, everything
    is based on finding 'nvcc' in the PATH.
    """

    # first check if the CUDAHOME env variable is in use
    if 'CUDAHOME' in os.environ:
        home = os.environ['CUDAHOME']
        nvcc = pjoin(home, 'bin', 'nvcc')
    else:
        # otherwise, search the PATH for NVCC
        default_path = pjoin(os.sep, 'usr', 'local', 'cuda', 'bin')
        nvcc = find_in_path('nvcc', os.environ['PATH'] + os.pathsep + default_path)
        if nvcc is None:
            raise EnvironmentError('The nvcc binary could not be '
                'located in your $PATH. Either add it to your path, or set $CUDAHOME')
        home = os.path.dirname(os.path.dirname(nvcc))

    cudaconfig = {'home':home, 'nvcc':nvcc,
                  'include': pjoin(home, 'include'),
                  'lib64': pjoin(home, 'lib64')}
    for k, v in cudaconfig.items():
        if not os.path.exists(v):
            raise EnvironmentError('The CUDA %s path could not be located in %s' % (k, v))

    return cudaconfig
CUDA = locate_cuda()

try:
    numpy_include = np.get_include()
except AttributeError:
    numpy_include = np.get_numpy_include()


def customize_compiler_for_nvcc(self):
    """inject deep into distutils to customize how the dispatch
    to gcc/nvcc works.
    If you subclass UnixCCompiler, it's not trivial to get your subclass
    injected in, and still have the right customizations (i.e.
    distutils.sysconfig.customize_compiler) run on it. So instead of going
    the OO route, I have this. Note, it's kindof like a wierd functional
    subclassing going on."""

    # tell the compiler it can processes .cu
    self.src_extensions.append('.cu')

    # save references to the default compiler_so and _comple methods
    default_compiler_so = self.compiler_so
    super = self._compile

    # now redefine the _compile method. This gets executed for each
    # object but distutils doesn't have the ability to change compilers
    # based on source extension: we add it.
    def _compile(obj, src, ext, cc_args, extra_postargs, pp_opts):
        if os.path.splitext(src)[1] == '.cu':
            # use the cuda for .cu files
            self.set_executable('compiler_so', CUDA['nvcc'])
            # use only a subset of the extra_postargs, which are 1-1 translated
            # from the extra_compile_args in the Extension class
            postargs = extra_postargs['nvcc']
        else:
            postargs = extra_postargs['gcc']

        super(obj, src, ext, cc_args, postargs, pp_opts)
        # reset the default compiler_so, which we might have changed for cuda
        self.compiler_so = default_compiler_so

    # inject our redefined _compile method into the class
    self._compile = _compile


# run the customize_compiler
class custom_build_ext(build_ext):
    def build_extensions(self):
        customize_compiler_for_nvcc(self.compiler)
        build_ext.build_extensions(self)

ext_modules =     [Extension('nms.gpu_nms',
        ['nms/nms_kernel.cu', 'nms/gpu_nms.pyx'],
        library_dirs=[CUDA['lib64']],
        libraries=['cudart'],
        language='c++',
        runtime_library_dirs=[CUDA['lib64']],
        # this syntax is specific to this build system
        # we're only going to use certain compiler args with nvcc and not with
        # gcc the implementation of this trick is in customize_compiler() below
        extra_compile_args={'gcc': ["-Wno-unused-function"],
                            'nvcc': ['-arch=sm_35',
                                     '--ptxas-options=-v',
                                     '-c',
                                     '--compiler-options',
                                     "'-fPIC'"]},
        include_dirs = [numpy_include, CUDA['include']]
    )]

setup(
    name='fast_rcnn',
    ext_modules=ext_modules,
    # inject our custom trigger
    cmdclass={'build_ext': custom_build_ext},
)

然后同上修改测试脚本执行测试脚本:

import numpy as np
import time
#from nms.nums_py2 import py_cpu_nms  # for cpu
from nms.gpu_nms import gpu_nms   # for gpu 


np.random.seed( 1 )   # keep fixed
num_rois = 6000
minxy = np.random.randint(50,145,size=(num_rois ,2))
maxxy = np.random.randint(150,200,size=(num_rois ,2))
score = 0.8*np.random.random_sample((num_rois ,1))+0.2

boxes_new = np.concatenate((minxy,maxxy,score), axis=1).astype(np.float32)

def nms_test_time(boxes_new):

    thresh = [0.7,0.8,0.9]
    T = 50
    for i in range(len(thresh)):
        since = time.time()
        for t in range(T):

#            keep = py_cpu_nms(boxes_new, thresh=thresh[i])     # for cpu
            keep = gpu_nms(boxes_new, thresh=thresh[i])       # for gpu
        print("thresh={:.1f}, time wastes:{:.4f}".format(thresh[i], (time.time()-since)/T))
    
    return keep


if __name__ =="__main__":
    nms_test_time(boxes_new)

结果:

thresh=0.7, time wastes:0.0120
thresh=0.8, time wastes:0.0063
thresh=0.9, time wastes:0.0071

发现比方法3还要慢一点应该是计算量较小而且时间损耗在调用GPU上吧。如果在Faster-RCNN中利方法4肯定是最快的毕竟是rbg的实现暂时来看方法3也足够了


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